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Low cost production of graphene

Graphene is a chicken-wire-like lattice of carbon atoms arranged in thin sheets of a single atomic layer thick. Its unique physical properties could lead to major advances in solar power, energy storage, computer memory and a host of other sectors. In spite of this widespread use, its complicated manufacturing processes and often-unpredictable structural similarity currently hamper graphene's widespread adoption.
U Penn's process
The researchers of University of Pennsylvania have developed a consistent and cost-effective method for making graphene using readily available materials and manufacturing processes that can be scaled up to industrial levels.
Instead of using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in a near vacuum, U Penn's team has worked at atmospheric pressure by electro polishing a commercially available copper foil substrate and depositing the graphene onto it to produce single-layer-thick graphene reliably at normal pressures if the metal sheets are smooth enough.
Manufacturing at atmospheric pressure keeps the cost of production of graphene low; production system is simpler and flexible while using commercially available materials and chemical processes that are already widely used in manufacturing. Such a situation could lead to wider commercial applications of graphene.
MIT process
Researchers of Massachusetts Institute of Technology have produced graphene in significant quantities in 2/3 layer form, arranged to give graphene a band gap, yielding A-B stacked layers with the atoms in one layer centered over the spaces between atoms in the next.
The researchers introduced bromine or chlorine compounds into graphite blocks. These compounds insert themselves naturally between every other or every third layer, pushing the layers apart. When the researchers dissolved the graphite, it naturally came apart where the added atoms sat, forming graphene flakes two or three layers thick.
The researchers say this method can be scaled to meet the needs of practical graphene applications. Further by this gentle processing method, graphene flakes can be manufactured in a large area. The researchers have validated the developed process by manufacturing some simple transistors needed for use in IC manufacturing.
Researchers report that a similar solvent-based method for making single-layer graphene is already being used to manufacture some flat-screen television sets.
NIU process
Researchers of Northern Illinois University have fabricated few-layer-thick graphene by converting carbon dioxide into graphene. The method involves burning pure magnesium metal in dry ice which produces carbon. This synthetic process can produce few-layer graphene in large quantities leading to , environmentally friendly and cost-effective production process.

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