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Nanotechnology in archtechture

Nano-titanium dioxide
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a white pigment and can be used as an excellent reflective coating. It is incorporated, as nanoparticles, in sun-block to block UV light and it is added to paints, cements and windows for its sterilizing properties since TiO2 breaks down organic pollutants, volatile organic compounds, and bacterial membranes through powerful catalytic reactions.
It can reduce airborne pollutants when applied to outdoor surfaces and gives self cleaning properties to surfaces to which it is applied as it is hydrophilic in nature.
Nano TiO2 Photocatalyst coating is a purifying coating technology based on nano photocatalysis. Photocatalyst coating when applied on walls, ceiling, floor carpets, curtains, car interior, toilet seats etc. and all kind of surfaces form an invisible film to decompose all kinds or micro-organic matters, like bacteria, viruses, mold, formaldehyde, benzene, xylene, ammonia, VOC's, tough odors etc.
The process by which this occurs is that rain water is attracted to the surface and forms sheets which collect the pollutants and dirt particles previously broken down and washes them off.
A nanoparticle added to concrete to improve its properties is titanium dioxide (TiO2). The resulting concrete, already used in projects around the world, has a white colour that retains its whiteness of buildings very effectively.
Nano-silica particles
Fibre sheet (matrix) containing nano-silica particles and hardeners penetrate and close small cracks on the concrete surface and, in strengthening applications, the matrices form a strong bond between the surface of the concrete and the fibre reinforcement.
Carbon nanotubes
The addition of small amounts (1% wt) of CNT’s can improve the mechanical properties of mix consisting of the main portland cement phase and water. Oxidized multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT’s) show the best improvements both in compressive strength (+ 25 N/mm ) and flexural strength (+ 8 N/mm ) compared to the mix without the reinforcement. The reason is the high defect concentration on the surface of the oxidized MWNTs leads to a better linkage between the nanostructures and the binder thus improving the mechanical properties of the composite rather like the deformations on reinforcing bars.
Copper nanoparticles
Fatigue is a significant issue that can lead to the structural failure of steel subject to cyclic loading, such as in bridges or towers. The addition of copper nanoparticles reduces the surface unevenness of steel which then limits the number of stress risers and hence fatigue cracking leading to increased safety, less need for monitoring and more efficient materials use in construction prone to fatigue issues.
Vanadium and molybdenum nanoparticles
vanadium and molybdenum nanoparticles has shown that they improve the delayed fracture problems associated with high strength bolts. Vanadium and molybdenum nanoparticles are used in the manufacture. The addition of the nanoparticles reduces the effects of hydrogen embrittlement and improve the steel micro-structure through reducing the effects of the inter-granular cementite phase.
Magnesium and calcium nanoparticles
The addition of nanoparticles of magnesium and calcium increases toughness of welded joints. This is a sustainability as well as a safety issue, as an increase in toughness at welded joints is possible, because less material is required in order to keep stresses within allowable limits.
Silica and alumina nanoparticles
A highly water repellent coating based on the actions of the lotus leaf has been marketed as a result of the incorporation of silica and alumina nanoparticles and hydrophobic polymers.
Fire-protective glass is achieved by using a clear layer sandwiched between glass panels (an interlayer) formed of fumed silica (SiO2) nanoparticles which turns into a rigid and opaque fire shield when heated.
Nano-sized cells
Nano-sized cells, pores and particles are added to paints to give corrosion protection under insulation since it is hydrophobic and repels water from the metal pipe and can also protect metal from salt water attack.

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