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Nanoparticle Applications

Polyethylene glycol-coated gadolinium based iron oxide nanoparticles
These are used to target cancer cells and detect apoptosis using magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Magnetic fields are also induced to heat the iron oxide nanoparticles to destroy the cancer cells.
Silicon-and silica-based nano-and micro-particles
These are injectable nano-vectors, porous, biodegradable, and therapeutic agents encapsulated inside the nanoparticles can deliver drugs to kill cancer cells.
Nanoshells (metal-based nanoparticles)
The nanoshells consist of a silica core with a surface layer of nanogold. Changing of the optical absorption properties of the nanoshells depend on the thickness of the gold layer. When radiated with near-infrared light, the nanoshells heat up to 55º to 70º C and can destroy cancer cells thermally.
Fullerene-based derivatives
These are used as anti-HIV, as well as anti-cancer agents. Both empty and metallo-fullerenes have low cyto-toxicity in vitro and in vivo and can be effectively used for drug design and delivery. The cage-like structure of fullerene is ideal for packing with anti-cancer drugs or even radiological materials to increase treatment efficacy for destroying cancer cells.
Carbon nanotubes
To destroy cancer cells the surface of the nanotubes are modified with proteins for cellular uptake and the nanotubes are heated with near-infrared light. They confine heat and destroy cancer cells. Complete destruction of nanotubes inside the body makes them ideal for handling toxicity problems that may be associated with nanotubes and nanoparticles.

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